Research papers on bullying laws

Using the criminal justice system to stop bullying should be the last resort, but it isn't unprecedented, said Justin Patchin, co-director of the Cyberbullying Research Center and professor of criminal justice at University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire.

Youth bullying trends in the United States: Research and data

Clementi's bully, Dharun Ravi, served 20 days in jail for using a webcam to spy on Clementi having sex with another male student and sharing the video with friends. The judge ruled it a hate crime. Five students received probation for bullying Prince, both online and in person. Both Clementi and Prince were struggling with mental health issues separate from being bullied.

Typically, bullying is handled at the school level, either by working with the victim to move them away from the bully or getting the bully into school counseling. All 49 state bullying laws require schools to set up a school policy to stop bullying. The state laws have set the floor, but haven't gone beyond that, said Nancy Willard, who has worked with states to develop anti-bullying programs and directs the advocacy group Embrace Civility in the Digital Age.

Reported rates of bullying have remained stable since the first anti-bullying laws took effect in Each year since then, about 28 percent of students, ages , reported some kind of bullying, according to the National Crime Victimization Survey conducted by the U. Department of Justice. Persistent bullying affects a relatively small number of students. Of the more than 24 million students who participated in the survey in the most recent year available , just over , students reported being bullied once or twice per week. The vast majority of students who said they'd been bullied said it had only happened once or twice during the school year, which does not fit the general definition of bullying—hurtful acts that are persistent and frequent.

Online bullying was reported less frequently than in-person bullying, but the rates have increased since , from 3. Only 18 states include cyberbullying in their anti-bullying legislation. While it makes up a small portion of the overall incidents of bullying, it's the place where adults have the least influence, although schools do have the legal right to intervene in cases where online bullying threatens a student's civil right to an education.

Even the definition of bullying varies from state to state. Some states describe it as persistent harassment, while others describe it as simply annoying behavior or teasing. Others, such as Florida, lay out specific behaviors, such as harassment, stalking and assault, which also are criminal acts. As pervasive as these laws are, it's unclear what effect they've had beyond simply raising awareness.

In some cases, said Patchin, lawmakers are simply passing legislation for the sake of showing their communities that they're concerned about bullying. To really stop bullying, schools need to focus on changing their school climate, i. That means getting the kids involved.

Are you being bullied at work? How do you classify bullying?

One option is setting up focus groups of students who can come up with recommendations for what administrators, teachers and other students can do to change the climate of the school so it no longer tolerates bullying. The focus groups are having an effect in the Anoka-Hennepin school district near Minneapolis, which, as the result of a lawsuit settlement, is operating under a five-year consent decree between the U.

Department of Justice and the Department of Education to change its school climate. In , after several students committed suicide, the two federal departments began a civil rights investigation into complaints that students had been bullied based on their sexual orientation. In , six students filed a lawsuit against the district for not responding to their complaints about bullying based on sexual orientation. The district had a policy requiring staff to remain neutral when discussions of sexual orientation came up in the classroom, which the students argued this was essentially a gag order preventing teachers from stopping anti-gay bullying.

Now, under direction from the federal agencies, teachers and administrators are being trained to stop bullying and get feedback from students on how well they're doing. The climate's definitely changed, said Ann Lindsey, a teacher at Jackson Middle School who initially reported the discrimination facing gay students in the district. Sign up for our daily update — original reporting on state policy, plus the day's five top reads from around the web.

Read Mode. Places United States. In such groups where the bully mentality has been allowed tobecome a dominant factor in the group environment, injustice andabuse often become regular and predictable parts of the groupexperience. Bystanders to bullying activities are often unableor unwilling to recognize the true costs that silence regardingthe bullying can have, both to the victim or victims, and to thegroup.

Bystanders often feel unwilling to empathize with thevictim, regardless of their feelings towards the bully. Thereversal of a culture of bullying within a group is usually aneffort which requires much time, energy, careful planning,coordination with others, and usually requires some undertakingof risk by group members. It is the general unwillingness of bystanders to expend thesetypes of energies and to undertake this type of risk thatbullies often rely upon in order to maintain their power.

Unlessaction is taken, a culture of bullying is often perpetuatedwithin a group for months, years, or longer. Bystanders who have been able to establish their own friendshipgroup or support group have been found to be far more likelyto opt to speak out against bullying behavior than those whohave not. Despite the large number of individuals who do not approve ofbullying, there are very few who will intervene on behalf of avictim.

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Most people remain bystanders and tend to accept thebullying or to support the bully. In most bullying incidents, bystanders do not intervene torestrain the bullying. When the bully encounters no negativeresponse from observers, it provides social approval for thebullying and encourages continuation of the behavior. There aremany reasons why individuals choose not to intervene. They maybe relieved that the victim of a normal and generally-presentdanger is someone else, they may take vicarious satisfaction inthe bullying, or they may worry that they risk becoming the nextvictim through intervention.

An intuitive understanding thatothers will be similarly unwilling to assist them if they dobecome the next victim likely strengthens the motivation toremain passive. Researchers have been considered the just-world belieftheory to explore a posited decline in anti-bullying attitudes. However, further research isneeded to link the two together.

While on the surface, chronic bullying may appear to be simplythe actions of an aggressor or aggressors perpetrated uponan unwilling targeted individual or individuals , on acertain deeper level, for it to succeed, the bullying-cycle mustalso be viewed as necessarily including a certain chronicinadequate response on the part of the target or targets.

Thatis, a response that is seen by both the bully and the target asinsufficient to prevent the chronic bullying-cycle fromrepeating itself between the given individuals. A suitableresponse to any given attempt at bullying varies with theoccasion, and can range from ignoring a bully to turning a prankaround so that it makes a pranksteree out of the would beprankster, to even summoning legal intervention. In any case,the targeted individual must necessarily somehow demonstrate tothe would-be bully that one will not allow ones self to bedaunted, intimidated, or otherwise "cowed" by the bully.

Thoseindividuals or groups who are capable of reacting to initialbullying attempts in ways that tend to sufficiently discouragepotential bullies from repeated attempts are less likely to bedrawn into this destructive cycle. Those individuals or groupswho most readily react to stressful situations by perceiving Under some circumstances, targets may be chosen in what may be acompletely random or arbitrary process, especially in groups inwhich the bully mentality may have already succeeded inachieving domination within the group.

Detailed anti-bullying laws can help protect LGBT+ teens, research says - Reuters

In such groups, thedefense mechanisms of the entire group may have already beenbroken down, and therefore the targeting of individuals nolonger requires the seeking out of certain personality typesto become the next target. The reversal of such chronic andwell entrenched bullying behavior in such groups sometimesrequires a much more carefully planned, coordinated, determined,and multi-individual response from a would-be target than in agroup in which either the bully mentality may not yet prevail, or ideally in a group that may have already taken apro-active preventative approach towards bullying.

The bullying-cycle must include both an act of aggressionon the part of a potential bully, and a response by a potentialtarget that is perceived by both as a certain sign ofsubmission. The cycle is only set in motion when both of thesetwo essential elements are present. Once both of these twoelements manifest themselves, the bullying cycle often proceedsto feed on itself over time, and may last for months, years, or The cycle is most easily broken at its initialonset; however, it can also be broken at any later point in itsprogression by simply removing either one of its two essentialingredients.

While group involvement may seem to complicatebullying activities, the act is most often an implied agreementin principle between a chief bully or instigator and the targetthat the one has submitted to the other. In the act ofbullying, the bully attempts to make a public statement to theeffect of: See me and fear me, I am so powerful that I have theability to inflict pain upon the intended target at the time andmanner of my choice without having to pay any consequences. Should an intended target exhibit a defeated attitude inresponse to chronic bullying, then the bullying is likely tocontinue.

In circumstances where a bullying pattern has notyet fully established itself, should the intended target respondwith a clear attitude of self-confidence that somehowdemonstrates that the bullys attempt to dominate is futile,then the bullying attempt will often quickly diminish or endall-together. Established patterns of bullying may requiregreater and more persistent effort to reverse. Institutions andorgans of society often reinforce bullying, often by implying toor telling targets of bullies that they are responsible fordefending themselves, and then punishing victims if they fightback.

https://chiwillhandsung.tk What are the profile of the respondents in terms of: a. Sex b. Age 2. What are the factors or causes of Bullying? What are the effects of bullying? That the there are some risk factors affecting bullying.


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