A large majority of the settlers were more driven for money, resulting in a more rural population of individuals. The New England Colonies were founded for religious reasons for reformers and separatists. They had fled England primarily due to disagreements between their religion and the Church of England.
Overall, the people of the New England region were connected to their church and community. New England specialized in shipbuilding, however this changed as they began to create factories. The area was ideal for factories due to possibility of generating machinery powered by water mills. The greater amount of factories and the limited amount of arable lands in the north lessened the demand for slaves, so there was a significantly smaller slave population.
For these reasons, the New England and Southern Colonies had differing economic bases. The Southern and New England Colonies had established frontiers of exclusions, meaning the Native Americans were removed from society. Both had relied on the Native Americans in the beginning of their settlements. In the south, specifically the Chesapeake Region, they had relied on the Native Americans for food. During the birth of Jamestown, the settlers had little success because they wasted a majority of their time drinking and gambling. As time elapsed, they undertook planting tobacco.
They no longer needed the Native Americans to supply food for them nor did they need them for labor. As the tobacco business boomed, they sought more land. The land they had desired was Native American territory, and to acquire this land, they had either forced them to relocate of exterminated the tribe as a whole. In the New England region settlement of Plymouth, the Pokunokets had offered food in exchange for the English forming an alliance with their enemies.
The Puritans eventually allied with the Narragansett Native American tribe, the enemies of the Pequot's, to attack the Pequot village where they had burned their homes and slaughtered the tribe members. The Narragansetts were shocked by the brutality of the Englishmen and had terminated their alliance. This had marked the rise of frontiers of exclusions between the English and Native Americans in the New England Colonies. King Philip's War had marked the last attempt of the Native Americans of the New England region to remove the English settlers from their land.
Metacom had attempted to forge an alliance with the Iroquois Confederacy, but the Iroquois people had declined. Instead, the Iroquois allied with the English, captured Metacom, and forced him back to Pokunoket territory where his head was severed. The war resulted in the death of 3, Native Americans, which gave more land to the English.
Compare and Contrast between New England and Southern Colonies Essay | giftmixmimea.tk
This had nearly exterminated the Native American population, creating a larger frontier of exclusion. Neither the Southern nor the New England Colonies had incorporated the Native Americans into society, making them both frontiers of exclusion. While the New England and Southern Colonies had numerous differences, they also had similarities. Both the colonial regions had adopted frontiers of exclusion with the Native Americans, however they had opposing patterns of settlement and economic bases. Upon his death, the land was left to his son Cecilius Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, who actually founded the colony.
He sought the colony as a refuge for English Catholics who were subjected to discrimination in England. In , Baltimore planted the first settlement at St. The charter empowered Baltimore with almost regal authority. He was able to grant huge feudal manors, hold people in serfdom, make laws, and develop his own courts. In the beginning, the estate owners were primarily Catholic gentlemen, with Protestants working as the servants.
Baltimore soon discovered that to draw more settlers he also had to offer small farms and give the colonists a say in the government. In , the first legislative assembly met, and in it divided into two houses with the governor and his council sitting separately from the lower house. In contrast to the northern and middle colonies, the southern and Chesapeake colonies, including Maryland, were predominantly rural settlements. Maryland quickly prospered because, like its neighbor, Virginia, its economy was based on tobacco.
Lord Baltimore would have preferred an exclusively Catholic colony. However, from the outset there was a mixture of Catholic and Protestant settlers in Maryland. As the colony grew the Protestant settlers began to outnumber the Catholic colonists, and the Protestant majority threatened to restrict the rights of Catholics.
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When the colonial era ended, Maryland sheltered more Roman Catholics than any other English-speaking colony. They ultimately executed Charles, and Cromwell assumed control of the government until his death in After years of civil war, royalists restored the monarchy and Charles II became King. These events had major consequences for the colonies. Colonization had been interrupted during this unrest and during the reign of Charles II, called the Restoration period, the government sought to bring the colonies under tighter royal control.
These settlements eventually became Royal Colonies functioning under official governors appointed by the crown.
Differences in the Northern & Southern States in the 1800s
The proprietors set out from London with about English settlers. On their way to Carolina they stopped at the English colonies of Bermuda and Barbados to pick up more experienced settlers. British settlements in the Caribbean, called the "West Indies," included island colonies such as Barbados, Antigua, and Jamaica that dated back to the early s. By the s, 20, people lived on plantations in the British Caribbean colonies, where they initially produced tobacco and later raised sugar cane.
The first settlers arrived in Carolina in with hopes of growing sugarcane and exporting non-English products like wine, silk, and olive oil. None of these plans were successful, and it was two decades before the settlers found a staple crop. Rice emerged as the principle export crop for the colony in the s. Carolinian colonists began paying a premium price for West African slaves who had experience in rice cultivation.
here By , the Africans made up a large majority of the population in Carolina. Dense forests also brought revenue with the lumber, tar, and resin from the pine trees providing some of the best shipbuilding materials in the world.
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North and South Carolina also produced and exported indigo, a blue dye obtained from native plants, which was used in coloring fabric. Charles Town, now Charleston, was founded in and became the leading port and trading center of the south. The city had a diverse cosmopolitan feel with various cultures settling there including French Protestant refugees, called Huguenots, and sons of English aristocrats.
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The northern region of Carolina was neglected from the outset because the English Aristocrat proprietors tolerated the region as a refuge for the outcasts of Virginia. The Virginians created a remote center called the Albemarle district just south of the Virginia border. In contrast to the sophistication of Charleston, with its English propriety and ties to Caribbean plantations, North Carolina developed distinctive traits such as a strong resistance to authority, being hospitable to pirates, and impious behavior. Due to friction between the governors, North and South Carolina were officially separated into two colonies in Subsequently, each settlement became a royal colony.
Slavery in Colonial British North America |
Just south of the Carolinas, Georgia was founded in by a group of London philanthropists. This was years after the first colony, Virginia, was founded and 52 years after the twelfth colony, Pennsylvania, was founded. Georgia was set up for two primary reasons: as a military buffer against the Spaniards in Florida and as a social experiment. A group of London philanthropists were concerned with the plight of honest persons who were imprisoned for debt. Oglethorpe had a military background and was able to successfully repel Spanish attacks.
As a buffer against Florida, the colony was considered a success. However, as a philanthropic endeavor, the colony was not as successful. To perpetuate this goal, land grants were limited to small plots, rum and other spirits were banned, and slavery was prohibited. In , the philanthropists, disillusioned, abandoned their responsibilities and the settlement became a royal colony. By the beginning of the Civil War, only one-ninth of the United States' industrial capacity was situated in the South. The North, meanwhile, produced 97 percent of the country's firearms and 93 percent of its pig iron.
The opportunities of industrialization attracted European immigrants led to building major cities in the North. By , the North's population stood at 23 million compared to the South's nine million. By contrast, 80 percent of Southerners were employed in agriculture, compared to just 40 percent in the North in Before and after the Civil War, the North and South were very different in their political alignments.
In the early s, many Northerners belonged to the Whig Party, while Southerners tended towards the Democrats. By the s and beyond, the Whig Party had collapsed, and many more Northerners became Republicans, while Southerners remained loyal to the Democrats. In addition, before the war, abolitionism was much more common in the North, though even there it was rare. The end of the Civil War brought an official end to slavery, but it did not immediately affect economic, political or social differences.